The state funeral of Queen Victoria took place 117 years ago today on 2nd of February 1901 in Windsor. it had been 64 years since the last burial of a monarch and this was particularly momentous as Victoria had been the longest- reigning monarch in British history.
The Queen died on 22nd January at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, surrounded by her family. Her eldest son, the new Edward VII, her third son Arthur and her eldest grandson, Kaiser Wilhelm helped lift her body into the coffin which was then transported to Portsmouth on the royal yacht (typically named Alberta). From Portsmouth she then travelled by train to London.
Victoria had left very specific instructions on how she wanted her funeral. She desired to be buried as a ‘soldier’s daughter’ (her father after all had been appointed Field-Marshal of the forces in 1805) A military funeral was delivered and the Queen’s coffin was paraded through the streets by gun carriage, pulled by 8 white horses. Vast crowds lined the streets, clamoring to pay their respects to the long reigning Queen.
After the service in St George’s Chapel, her coffin lay-in-state in the Albert Memorial Chapel for two days under guard. The Queen’s final resting place was the Frogmore Mausoleum, beside her beloved Albert.
It’s my blog birthday today! Happy First Birthday Blog! I haven’t been the best blogger…stopped for longer than I wrote for…but that is changing!
Starting with a new series of on this day...
(Technically yesterday- 25th January)
On this day 160 years ago in 1858, Queen Victoria and Prince Albert’s eldest daughter Princess Vicky married the Crown Prince of Prussia, Frederick. Their wedding took place in the Chapel Royal at St James’s Place in London, with the extended families on both sides in attendance. This marriage had been skilfully arranged by Albert who had a vision for the future of Europe. His ideas of a liberal and united continent were to be implemented through carefully arranged marriages of his own children to the various royal houses of Europe.
As the oldest, Vicky was the first to put this idea to the test. Prussia was the largest state of the German Empire and a powerful influence in Europe. For Albert and Victoria, their roots were German and so it was a natural ally to choose. The Crown Prince Frederick had similar liberal ideas to the Prince Consort, and an added bonus was Vicky and Frederick’s mutual attraction. Their marriage was a caring one, and lasted for 30 years, until Frederick’s untimely death at the age of 56.
A key part aspect of their wedding was that it made famous Felix Mendelssohn’s ‘Wedding March’, which has become a traditional piece to be played at English weddings.
Full name: Anne Stuart Born: 6th February 1665, St James’ Palace Daughter of James II and Anne Hyde Reigned: 8th March 1702 – 1st of August 1714
If you know anything about Queen Anne, you will probably know that when she died she was so large her coffin was almost square. Or you may know that she was involved in a scandalous relationship with a woman? How about the fact that she was officially the first monarch of Great Britain? To be honest, I only knew about the coffin fact until I began researching her.
One of the most interesting things about Anne was how she was never actually meant to be Queen. When she was born in 1665, her Uncle Charles II was only 5 years into his reign and still recently married. He did not have any children yet, but it was still assumed that he would. Despite this, it was still not thought that Anne would be Queen owing to her having an elder sister. However, as you may recall from my post on Charles II he did not produce a legitimate heir. The crown therefore came to Anne’s father, James II who was an unpopular king. His reign was unsuccessful and he was forced to abdicate in favour of Anne’s elder sister Mary and her husband William of Orange who became joint rulers. However, they were unable to produce an heir, and after William’s death in 1702, Anne became Queen. In addition to this Anne and Mary’s mother, Anne Hyde was not royal, not normally allowed for monarch. She had worked as a chief maid to the Princess Royal, which is how she met James II. When Anne was born, other royal families looked down on her due to her mother’s lower birth rank, It was never expected that she would be Queen.
The fates were not looking great for Anne when she succeeded the throne, as she herself had no heir either. Accounts do vary on the exact number, but Anne was said to have had at least 16 pregnancies, with only a few resulting in a living child. Her longest living son, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, died at the age of 11 from smallpox. This was only 2 years before Anne came to the throne, already in her mid 30s, and therefore unlikely to conceive again. The succession had been a major concern throughout the Stuart’s reign’s, owing to the problems with religion. Anne was the last protestant monarch in the Stuart family.
Despite this sadness of losing so many children, Anne’s reign was fairly positive, owing to her immediate popularity after the dislike of her dutch brother-in-law. A favourable act that was passed during her reign was the 1707 Act of Union. This brought together England, Scotland and Ireland as Great Britain (Wales formed part of the Kingdom of England) under one parliament and therefore Anne was the first monarch of Great Britain. She lost popularity due to her close friendship with the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough. The Duke, John Churchill was a highly accomplished military commander and was victorious at the Battle of Blenheim in 1704. This success led Anne to bequest him and his wife Sarah the royal residence at Woodstock. This is where he had Blenheim Palace commissioned, though with public money, much to the annoyance of the people.
Anne’s friendship with his wife continued to a point of being a major political concern. Their friendship had been forged long before Anne became Queen, however, Anne became more and more dependent on Sarah. Their letter’s to each other were very informal, showing how Anne treated her as though they were equal status. ‘Mrs Freeman’ and ‘Mrs Morley’ were how they referred to each other. To top this off, Anne made Sarah Mistress of the Robes, the most senior position in the Royal Court for a woman to hold. This power and influence was significant. Rumours of them having a secret romance were questioned. Yet it did come to an end owing to political disagreements.
Despite what was speculated about Anne’s private life, she was devoted to her husband, Prince George of Denmark who died in 1708 of chronic lung disease. His and Anne’s marriage had been a strong and close one, despite their children’s deaths. Anne was deeply sadden by his death, which may explain why she became to rely on others so heavily. Her death came in 1714. She had suffered with gout for many years and had not been able to walk for last few months. It must have been a horrible and painful death. As the last protestant Stuart, parliament used their power to find a new heir, a distant cousin in Hanover, George I.
Full name: Louis Auguste de France Born: 23rd August, 1754 at Versailles Son of Louis Dauphin of France and Maria Josepha of Saxony Reigned: 10th May 1774 – 10th August 1793 (executed 21st January 1793)
This post is late…I know, I’ve had a very busy week, so therefore I’m making this one a bit different by writing about the French Monarchy rather than the British. I’ve always been really intrigued about Louis XVI, as he was the last Bourbon King and his death drastically changed life in France, providing the people with a voice which culminated in the French Revolution.
Louis’ early life was fairly short, owing to the fact that he died at the age of 39. Like a lot of kings, Louis was ill prepared for the throne as he was not expected to be king. Within a five year period, his father (the heir) and his brother (the next in line) were dead. He became his grandfather’s heir. As child, Louis had shown intellectual promise, and was good a history and latin. However he was very introverted and shy.
In 1770 at the age of 15, he was wed to his distant cousin, Marie Antoinette. It was notdeemed a successful marriage at first owing to the rumour or assumption that it had not been consummated. This was thought the case owing to the fact their first child was born eight years after they married. Their marriage was considered to be distant. Marie was unpopular owing to her family history, as the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor whom encouraged France to join the Seven Years War, there were concerns that this may happen again.
Louis became King of France at the age of 20. He was a weak king though, to give him credit he tried to be a good one. Initially there was hope, he implemented a religious policy which supported non Catholics in France and his foreign policy was popular in backing the Americans against the hated British during the Wars of Independence. However, his main failure was his inability to address the issues in the country, particularly fiscal policies, which resulted in serious economic issues across the nation. The country was organised by social standing into Three Estates. The First was Clergy and the Church which made up 1% of the population. The second was the nobility which was also only about 1% of the population. The third was everyone else. The Ancien régime,which was the political and social system that had been in place in France since the middle ages. Under this system everyone was a subject of the king. The King had the power to call the Estates General to discuss the issues within the country.
In 1789 the meeting took place at Versailles, and the representatives of the Third estate were angry over their forced poverty. This set in pace the events of the French revolution. It was the suppression of the people and the clear divide between the king and his subjects that caused the fall of the monarchy. In August 1792 Louis’ title was removed. By September France was declared a republic. He was executed in January 1793 in Paris.
Louis’ reign could be viewed as a disaster. I personally feel he was really just unlucky. His reign was simply the final straw for many. Having inherited the throne during a time of instability with huge debts owing to previous wars, the country needed change. Louis was not suited to be a ruler, and really should not have been king. The French Revolution shows (like the Russian one) that systems need to be updated, and possibly more importantly, The People whom these rulers are often ignorantly unaware of, will have their say.
Full Name: Albert Francis Charles Augustus Emmanuel Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Born: 26th August 1819 Son of Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Louise of Saxe-Gotha Attenburg Married: His cousin, Queen Victoria, 10th February 1840
My monthly series on the spouse of the monarch. Essentially what a consort means, Albert is a significant first post owing to his title. When Albert and Victoria married, she was already Queen and his title took a while to be established. Victoria interestingly wanted him to be styled King Consort however parliament were not in favour of this and so Prince Consort was finalised.
The reason this was not previously established was owing to the fact that there had been so few female monarchs, and within those few, not all had even married. Mary I (or bloody Mary as some still call her) was the first Queen to address the issue of naming the male spouse with her husband Philip II of Spain becoming a King Consort. This was not the case to Albert for several reasons, firstly he was not popular. He came from a small and poor royal family in Saxony, which was seen as far below the status of Victoria as Queen of Great Britain. As a foreigner, he was also not liked, with satirical magazine, Punch regularly posting offensive cartoons of him. The most important reason why he could not be King Consort was the distinction of ‘King’ over ‘Queen’. When a King by blood marries, his wife is automatically a Queen. This is due to Queen being a lower status to King (technically speaking) which is why Prince is used.
Albert’s next difficulty, having been granted the Prince Consort title, was creating a role for himself. Again this position had not been established, and Albert found it difficult having to play second fiddle to his wife. An intelligent young many, well educated not only in traditional areas such as music and languages but he had also received a University education studying at the University of Bonn where he excelled in the sciences, politics and law. Albert’s role gradually became more defined. In 1840, only a few months after their wedding, Albert spoke at the Society for the Abolition of Slavery, which was still in action throughout much of the world even though it had been outlawed in Britain. His speech was a success and showed how beneficial he could be to important causes.
Many more causes and campaigns were championed by Albert, particularly the Arts and sciences. It is thanks to Albert’s interest that science as a subject became much more prominent and was in part a contributor to the Industrial Revolution. This was showcased in the impressive Great Exhibition of 1851, displaying all of the finest parts of the Empire in one place. In addition to this Albert was made chancellor of the University of Cambridge, a role which he took most seriously.
Nevertheless, despite all of Albert’s triumphs, he died young, with many plans unfulfilled. At only 42 it was a massive blow to his besotted wife, who lived the rest of her life in mourning. Albert’s legacy lives on very visibly today, owing to the sheer quantity of monuments and building named in his honour by none other than his wife. The Royal Albert Hall is one of the most notable. To summarize Albert is challenging, as he achieved a lot in such a short time, however for any consort the main triumph is producing heirs which Albert very much did.
Full Name: Henry Tudor Born: 28th January 1457, Pembroke Castle Son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort Reigned: 22nd August 1485 – 21st April 1509
The Tudors. This name stimulates images of Henry VIII standing impressively in regal robes. You probably know which painting I am describing. If not, simply google Henry VIII and it should come up. He is synonymous with this dynasty, known for his numerous wives and changing the structure of religion in England. However, I feel his father, who gave this renowned dynasty his name, is often overlooked as a serious and boring king. I plan to change this perception.
Henry Tudor’s route to become king was not straightforward like the majority of rulers. As you an see above, neither of his parents were a monarch, so how did he come to be king? The answer is the Wars of the Roses. This series of conflicts officially began in 1455 with the Battle of St Albans and ended with Henry Tudor’s triumph at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. The issues surrounding the initial battle stemmed from the political problems of the time, to the weakness of Henry VI and the shared royal bloodline from John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III. The establishment of two royal houses followed, The House of York and The House of Lancaster.
After Henry VI death, the House of York remained in power until Henry VII, whose claim was through his mother, Margaret Beaufort to the Lancastrian line. (also a decedent of John of Gaunt) Henry’s early life is not widely known, which is unusual for a king. Much this was owing to his unorthodox royal family and distant claim to throne, which resulted in him spending his early years in exile abroad. Henry’s return came from the dislike of Yorkist King Richard III, who had overthrown his brother, Edward IV’s sons and heirs to take throne for himself. Margaret Beaufort was instrumental in promoting her son as an alternative king. Richard’s defeat at Bosworth signaled the end of the Wars of the Roses, with Henry taking the throne and marrying Edward IV daughter, Elizabeth of York.
Now to address Henry as boring king. He was not boring but cautious. Unlike previous kings, Henry had not been brought up to be the next monarch and had therefore not been taught the ways of diplomacy and statesmanship, he had to learn this quickly. But he was ultimately a very successful king. He made England peaceful, for the first time in over 30 years, and vastly improved the country’s finances. But the success of Bosworth was not the end of Henry’s need to defend his position as king. Throughout his reign he had to contend with those that opposed his reign. Most notably Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck, whom both posed separately as the ‘Princes in the Tower’, trying to play on the sympathies of the country. Luckily for Henry, his own supporters were larger in number and these threats were not long lasting. Yet the first Tudor King was never fully confident of this.
His main success of security was marrying Elizabeth of York, and in doing so uniting the two houses. Thus the Tudor Rose was born. Their marriage was prosperous and unusually caring for an arranged marriage. Together they had four children who reached adulthood, with the renowned Henry VIII taking the throne. Henry Tudor’s greatest accomplished can be argued as fully establishing the Tudor dynasty for his son, as Henry VIII never encountered any opposition to his rule.
Full Name: George Frederick Ernest Albert Born: 3rd June 1865 Son of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark Reigned: 1910 – 1936 Hobby: Stamp Collecting (he took this very seriously)
The Grandson of Queen Victoria, who was not meant to be king, grew up in the strict and proper society emerging in Britain in the late 19th century. His limited education did not prepare him for what would be in store when his elder brother, Albert Victor (known as Eddy) died suddenly of pneumonia. At 27, George was faced with the daunting prospect of being the next in line to the throne.
Having only ever learnt about George V with relation to the First World War, I had an impression of him as a very brave and prepared King, who led Britain successfully through the war. I never thought how little provision had been made for George to take the throne, and even how little education his elder brother (whom I knew nothing about) had experienced. Schooling seemed to have little importance to the future monarch, and was the case, up until Prince Charles (current heir to the throne) attended Gordonstoun boarding school in the 1960s. The main focus of their education came from the Navy as they were both enrolled as sea cadets. For George, little was expected from him as the second son. He simply followed in his brothers footsteps, and even did so when he died by being encouraged to marry his brother’s finance Mary of Teck.
Becoming King was a burden for George. ‘I am heartbroken and overwhelmed by grief. May God give me strength and guidance in the heavy task that has fallen upon me.’ He was crowned in 1911, and shortly afterwards visited India, the first British monarch to do so. His reign brought much change to politics in Britain, as he appointed (on behalf of the British public) the first labour government, saw women gain the vote, and the supremacy of the elected House of Commons over the House of Lords.
The First World War came only four years into George’s reign and was a horrifying shock to him, especially being at war against his cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm. This led to the general distrust and anger to any German within Britain and caused George to rethink the family name which was Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (his grandfather, Prince Albert’s name). The new name of Windsor was selected because of historic roots to William the Conqueror and therefore how British it seemed! This was an important move for the propaganda of the royal family, showing how loyal they were to their country. The war was an ultimate victory for Britain but a disaster in terms of loss. Nearly one million men died during the First World War.
For George and the royal family, the war had been a turning point for the future of the monarchy in Britain. 27 crowned heads of state were disposed or abdicated by the end of of the war including George’s close cousin, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, whom was murdered. This was a major political concern for Britain, owing to the growing feelings of socialism. George’s approach to monarchy changed, with the help of his loyal wife Queen Mary, they made royalty approachable. This was shown by visiting the many wounded in hospitals, making trips to the more deprived parts of the country which were experiencing vast amounts of unemployment. George even attended a football game. He made monarchy what it is today, drastically different from the aloof and out dated system that it had been before. George v introduced the Christmas broadcast which his granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth still dutifully does each year.
King George V legacy is an notable one. He may not have been the most academic or confident monarch, but held his role in the highest importance. Duty came before all else. His preference for remaining at home, living the quiet life with his stamp collection was overturned by his duty to his country during the war. But for me, we really do have George to thank for the fact that we still do have a monarchy today, as it was his understanding that reinvented the role of the king and queen for future generations.
Born: 29th May 1630, St James’ Palace
Son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria
Reigned: 1660 – 1685
“The King who brought back Partying!”
My favourite King. This may surprise some people as his reputation has not always been the best. Womaniser is the main derogatory noun used to describe him, owing to his numerous mistresses. Lucy Walters, Barbara Villiers and Nell Gwyn to name a few. This I feel often over looks him as a very able King who revitalised the monarchy and prevented rebellions.
Any account of Charles II seems to always be accompanied by an account of his father, which seems unfair especially as his father’s disastrous reign over shines any later positives. However comparisons have to be made to understand the difficulty faced by Charles II and how he proved to be successful regardless of his father.
Charles was only 12 years old when the Civil War broke out in England, provoked to the extreme by his father’s unwillingness to rule with parliament. With the Roundheads victory, Charles, his mother and younger siblings were forced into exile.
With the death of Oliver Cromwell came the end of the Commonwealth in England that had driven the country into a decade of religious piety and control. And returned the rightful King.
The quote at the top is a reference to the songKing of Bling from the CBBC ‘Horrible Histories’ series about Charles II. It’s such a catchy song but also the lyrics are very true. Charles did bring back partying which had been outlawed by Cromwell. Yet aside from bringing back fun (and Christmas) Charles was also very pragmatic in his approach to ruling. He was careful to pursue a policy that accepted and promoted power sharing and listened to his advisers. Although his return did mean prosperity for many, there were still concerns over religion, particularly Catholicism.
Five years into Charles’ reign and the hot summer of 1665 was a breading ground for the deadliest plague in Britain since the middle ages. It overcome the London’s slums, when conditions were cramped and hygiene non existent. The King and others with money were able to evade the disease by escaping London, however many were not as lucky and hundreds of thousands of people died. The plague only truly ended the following year due to the devastation caused by the Fire of London. For this the King stayed and played his part, helping the locals to put out the fire, though the diarist, Samuel Pepys stated that this was purely to help his own image.
This image waned in popularity particularly owing to his rather extravagant lifestyle, especially his mistresses. Charles was very public with his lovers, and showered them with expensive gifts, titles and land. He even gave them rooms in his palaces. His poor wife Catherine of Braganza had to put up with his adultery. She did this stoically at first, however the hardest part of the King’s philandering, was his numerous illegitimate children from his mistresses, made even more difficult as Catherine herself was unable to produce an heir. Charles is believed to have had at least 15 children from various mistress, whom he not only acknowledged but also gave titles. His son James Scott, Duke of Monmouth tried to claim the throne after Charles died, showing that he believed his right as the King’s son, not often the case for children of royalty born out of wedlock.
Charles died at the age of 54. Having no legitimate heir the throne was left to his younger brother, James. His reign to me is interesting. He is remembered now as the ‘merry monarch’ who’s reign brought back ‘fun’ to Britain.
Full Name: Alexandrina Victoria Born: 24th May 1819, Kensington Palace Daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent and Victoria Saxe-Coburg Reigned: 1837 – 1901
Until Sept 2015, she had been the longest reigning English Monarch. Having been on the throne for 63 years she had not only seen the vast changes of the Industrial Revolution but also (for me the most significant) the revitalisation of the monarchy.
You may have watched the recent ITV series Victoria staring Jenna Coleman and Rufus Sewell which showed Victoria’s first few years as Queen. These years were difficult for the young Queen, only 18-years-old and with little knowledge and awareness of the complexity of the job. Her isolated childhood at Kensington Palace with no siblings or friends to play with, and her widowed mother, manipulated by Sir John Conroy for power played a significant part in her early reign. Victoria’s first request as Queen was to have her bed removed from the room she shared with her protective mother.
Yet, as many programmes, documentaries and dramas about Queen Victoria heavily emphasise, her difficult early years and her marriage to Albert, I want to focus on her legacy. As earlier stated, to me the most striking part of Victoria’s reign is how she made the monarchy popular again. Prior to her reign, the Hanoverian’s had ruled Britain since 1714, and had generally been more unpopular than popular. Even Victoria herself would refer to her ‘disgraceful Uncles’. Their extravagant lifestyles of excess, no legitimate children and sense of entitlement due to their royal blood tarnished their reigns’.
This was particularly the case with George IV who had been regent during his father’s madness. His public perception was so poor that a polite reference in a newspaper stated that he was ‘lazy, selfish and arrogant’. For Victoria, her reign was a chance to reinvent the monarchy, which some historians have said was essential for the type of monarchy we have now.
So what made Victoria such a successful monarch? It is difficult to pinpoint one area alone. For me, it’s a combination of factors, the first being her marriage to Prince Albert. Despite this only lasting 21 years due to his untimely death, they had a very prosperous one, and it produced nine children. All of their offspring reached adulthood, something that was rare during the 19th century, with many children dying in infancy. This gave the royal family a image of stability and prosperity in difficult times, and led to marriages across European royal families.
The second factor was Victoria’s ability to understand the importance of modernisation. This was shown by her deliberate interest in current affairs and not just politics. For example, she became the patron of over 150 charities and societies during her reign, showing great interest in the arts, literature and music. Science and innovation became much more important, with awareness and funding for research made a priority. The Victoria Cross was also established in her name to honour acts of bravery during the Crimean War. Victoria was fascinated by other cultures. She spoke five languages and in her later years learnt Hindustani and Urdu to be able to communicate with her servants from India. This interest was greatly significant in her success as not only a British monarch, but also a ruler of a vast Empire.
The final factor that made her such a successful monarch was her longevity. This in someways is ‘luck’ owing to the fact she lived into her eighties, however the unpopularity of the monarchy at the beginning of her reign shows how she regained the public’s interest in having a royal family. Victoria had overcome her fair share of difficulties, enduring six assassination attempts. Nevertheless, her death caused mourning in Britain in a way that had not been previously prevalent. Her legacy is even now apparent in her great-great granddaughter, Elizabeth II.